Bandhavgarh Flora & Fauna

flora fauna bandhavgarh IndiaBandhavgarh is very rich in floral diversity due to combination of landforms and soil types, and the moist character of the region. Forests types of Bandhavgarh can be identified as Moist Peninsular Sal Forest and Southern tropical Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest and Southern Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest. The reserve has over 600 species of flowering plants, 50 species of aquatic plants and 18 species of rare plants.Bandhavgarh National Parks has variety of tree that one may comes across during visit. Some of them are as follows:

Sr. No.

Tree name

Short Description


(Shorea robusta)

It is the most abundant timber tree of Bandhavgarh forest. Sal is a moderate slow growing tree and found in abundance in forest of Bandhavgarh. Its wood is termite resistant and useful in making of furnitures, railway sleepers etc. Its stem exudes a gum (viscous paste) used in marine yards for caulking boats, shoe polish etc. Its leafless period is short, virtually a evergreen tree. Butter extracted from its seed is used in making chocolates.   


(Terminalia coricea)

The genus Terminalia Linn includes 200 species of tree & shrubs. They are source of non-wood products like gums, oil, drug preparation etc. It is called crocodile bark tree due to its unique patterns on the bark. Its long and clear bole makes it a good timber value.


Mahua/Indian Butter Tree
(Madhuca indica)

Indian butter tree is very popular among villagers of Central India. It is found in majority of areas of Madhya Pradesh. Oil extracted from its seed used as edible oil and in soap industry. Its fleshy flowers are rich source of Vitamin, calcium, sugar source to birds and animals. Its flowers are used in making strong alcoholic brew consumed by local villagers.


Flame of Forest
(Butea monosperma)

It is also called Palash Tree. Its bright orange flowers appears in month of February & March. During this period it changes the view of forest. Its average height is 6-12 meter. Flower is boiled to extract colour for dye, ink etc. It is very common tree in Bandhavgarh & its near-by areas. Local people call it “Choola”. It is good host plant for lac producing insects.


(Pterocarpus marsupium)

It is popularly known as Indian Kino Tree. It is a medium to large in height and have medicinal value in Ayurveda. It is used for treatment of diabetes, inflammation etc.


(Aegle marmelos)

Bel is also known by the name of “stone apple”. Its juice is used in making refreshing drinks and is considered good for stomach. It is used as a ayurvedic remedy for  ailments as diarrhea, dysentery, dryness of eye, constipation etc.


(Ficus bengalensis)

Banyan or Indian Banyan can grow into a giant tree covering several hectares. We can find this tree in Bandhavgarh, whose figs are eaten by birds and mammals. Seed of fig are dispersed by birds like Indian Mynas. Studies have shown that seeds passed through digestive system of bird are more likely to germinate.


(Syzygium cumini)

It is a evergreen beautiful tree found in Bandhavgarh. Jamun fruit appears in month of May & June. On first appearance of fruit is in green colour then its changes into pink and later become black on fully ripe stage. Fruit is good for digestive system and other parts of tree also have significant medicinal value. Wild animals like langur, fruit bat, chital relish them. Honey produced from its flower has great medicinal value.


(Terminalia chebula)

Harra or Harad tree has great medicinal value in ayurveda. It is moderate to large tree with rounded crown, yellowish-white flowers, spreading branches. Its fruit is used to cure many common disorders like piles, vomiting, throat problem, bleeding disorder, hyperacidity, constipation, hiccough, arthritis etc. It is one of the prominent content of famous Indian household appetizer called “Trifala/triphala churan”


(Belleric myroblan)

It is a large tree with leaves 10 to 25cm. long, clustered near ends of branches, small pale green foul-smelling flowers in simple spikes. Healing power of dried bahera fruit is well known in India. Bahera is also one of the three constituents of Triphala. It is also used during cough, stomach disorder, sore throat, constipation, eye disorder, intestinal worms etc.


Indian gooseberry
(Emblica officinalis)

Indian gooseberry or Amla is known for edible spherical fruit. Tree is medium sized tree of 7 to 17 mtr. Height. It grows relatively slowly. Fruit is light green color and have great medicinal value. If we observe fruit carefully we can notice six divisions in its body. Amla is another important ingredient of Indian Triphala/Trifala.


(Adina cordifolia)

Adina cordifolia is found in forest area of Bandhavgarh. Local people know it by the name of Kadam or Haldu. It blossoms during winter season. Its flowers are usually yellow with some shade of pink colour. Bark of tree have been used as antiseptic.


(Bauhinia roxburghiana)

Thwar is a flowering plant, found in Bandhavgarh National Park.


(Bombax ceiba)

Bombax ceiba is commonly known as cotton tree.  Its red flowers with five petals in spring gives it beautiful look. Its trunk is straight, tall and have spikes.


(Ficus religiosa)

Pipal (peepal or pepal tree) is a sacred tree for Hindus & Buddhists. Specialty of this tree is that it produces oxygen in day time as well as in night also. It is also known as Bodhi Tree as lord Buddha attained enlightenment under a papal tree. It belongs to the Ficus species and have great ecological value. They provide feeding, roosting & nesting sites for birds & mammals.


(Diospyros melanoxylon)

Madhya Pradesh is the largest Tendu leaves producer state of India. Diospyros melanoxylon leaf is the most suitable wrapper as it can be rolled easily and available in mass. Its leaves are widely used in Indian Bidis. It is widely available in forest of Bandhavgarh. Many villagers use to enter village to collect its leaves.


(Buchanania lanzan)

Buchanania lanzan is from family of Anacardium and its common name is Charoli or Chironji. It is a medium sized tree with tiny, hard shelled fruits. Kernel inside the shell is used for garnishing sweets in India.


(Lagerstroema parviflora)

Its telugu name is Chennangi. It is very common tree in both moist & dry forest areas. Its speciality is  light demander, drought resistand, good coppicer & fire-resistant. Its fruits ripes in December to February. It can be seen in both moist & dry area of Bandhavgarh forest.


(Grewia tiliaefolia)

It is a flowering plant. Its furits called “Phalsa” are delicious in taste and liked by languars & deers of Bandhavgarh national park.


(Zizyphus xylopyrus)

It is found in Central India as well as south-west part of India. Zizyphus is a small tree in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. Its leaves are are alternate, entire with three prominent basal veins, size 2-8 cm. long. It is found in warm temperature and subtrophical regions of forested areas of Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve.


(Randia dumentorum)

It is a small tree of rigid shrub. It have long spines with strong horizontal leaves of 1-2 inches long. Plant is covered with white flowers turning yellow over a few days. It attracts maximum number of butterflies and daytime moth like clearwing hawk moth. Its seeds have medicinal properties and often used as fish poison.


(Mallotus philippensts)

It is a native Indian tree with height of 20-30 mtr. tall. Its twigs are solid and densely hairy. It is found in both primary & secondary forests of Bandhavgarh. Its seed capsule is the source of yellow dye.


(Careya arborea)

It is commonly known as Slow Match Tree in English. It falls under deciduous tree category whose leaves fall seasonly. Its leaves turn red in winters and can grow up to 18 mtr.high. Its flowers are yellow or white in colour and produce like green berries. Its bark has medicinal value of curing common cold and coughs.


Sundew (Drossera indica)

Sundrew is an insectivore plant. It has a profusion of small hair that secretes a droplet of sticky material which stucks the insect sitting on it. When prey was caught, plant curls around the insect and digest its protein content. It usually grow in poor nutrient soils. The Shera Dadra meadow of Bandhavgarh reserve harbours this beautiful plant.


(Terminalia arjuna)

It is known for its medicinal value and widely used by Ayurvedic physicians. It is known for its curative properties in hypertension, heart problem etc. Other names of it are Koha, Kahu, Arjan etc. It is large size deciduous tree of height approx. 50 – 90 feet. It is evergreen tree with yellow flowers and conical leaves. Its flowers can be seen in the month of March to June.


(Cordia dichotoma)

It is a medium high tree with average height of 12 mtr. Cordia dichotoma has known for medicinal value. It is useful in disease of cough, chest, colic paint etc. Its fruits, kernel, mucilage and barks are useful portions of tree.



Bamboo is another most commonly seen tree in Forests of Bandhavgarh. It belongs to grass family. Bamboo is a tree that flowers gregariously only once in 30 to 45 years. Last gregarious flowering occurred in Bandhavgarh forest during 1984-85. Birds and animals feed on it as bamboo is in abundant and nutritious too. Two main species of bamboo founds in Bandhavgarh: Dendrocalamus strictus & Bamboosa arundinacea.


(Zizyphus mauritiana)

Ber is also known by the name of Indian jujube, Chinee Apple, Boroi. Its tree is found widely in forest of Bandhavgarh. Zizyphus mauritiana is a trophical fruit tree. Its fruit is good source of vitamin ‘C’, presented to god in Hindus and considered sacred. Tree is of medium height i.e, of 6-14 mtr. High with thorns in branches. Its leaves are about 3-8 cm long and thick.


(Anogeissus latifolia)

Dhaora is a small medium sized tree of 20-35 mtr. high.  It is considered as one of the most useful tree in India. It is a good source of gum which is used for calico printing. It is found in semi evergreen forest area. It is leaf-less in the month of February to May and followers in the months of June to September. Fruit is available in the months of December to March.


(Ficus virens)

Its common name is White Fig. Its fruit is edible just like many other figs and local villagers of Bandhavgarh consumes it in their food habit.


(Lannea grandis)

Mango is very famous fruit of India. Mango tree can be widely seen in Central India and other parts of India. Its fruit is available in summer season i.e. in the months of May, June, July. It is considered as king of all fruits in India. It is favorite fruits of local tribal people close to Bandhavgarh National Park. Mango can be consumed in both raw & ripe form.


(Bridelia squamosa)

It is a medium to large sized tree. Its height is up to 10 – 20 mtr. High with pointed thorns in trunk area. Its bark is dark brown in colour and roughly cracked.

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